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研究:雅思判断题最新解题技巧  

2008-12-28 18:08:12|  分类: 雅思阅读技巧/英 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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判断题是雅思考试的常见题型,也是难度很大的题型。在普通培训类考试中最多达22题,在学术类考试中也不少于6题。目前有逐渐增多的趋势。其中True/False/NotGiven 多见于General Training Module, Yes/No/Not Given 则多见于AcademicModule, 因为Yes/No/Not Given最初是

  很多考生对判断题时常束手无策,特别对False和NotGiven易混淆。要攻克判断题的难关,我们要分析它的命题规律,找出考察点,有的放矢,才能提高解题准确率。

  首先,我们来看一看判断题的设题模式。

  从设题模式可以看出雅思考试的考察点基本上可分为两大类:

  1)信息点对应,即细节的对应和观点的对应。例1:It rained heavily everywhere in NorthChina. Q: It rained in Beijing. 例2. Many people believe that theIELTS candidates must attend an IELTS training course beforesitting the test. Q: The author believes that the IELTS candidatesshould attend an IELTS training course before sitting the test.

  2)简单的推理、总结和归纳能力;基本语言知识和常识。雅思考试从命题角度不像TOEFL和GRE那样将不同的考察点置于专门题型中,而在一种题型中可能出现几个方面的考察点。但有一点考生要记住:由于雅思考试是一种语言能力的测试,它不考察专业知识,不考察阅读文章以外的背景知识(除基本常识以外,如简单的地理知识)。下面我们来看一看T/F/NG的基本定义:

  True(Yes): 问题中的信息点或观点与文中的信息点或作者的观点一致。

  例:

  1. It rained heavily everywhere in North China. Q: It rainedin Beijing.

  2. By trying to do a better job of teaching, computerscientists may learn quite a lot themselves.

  Q: Computer scientists are likely to learn a lot fromteaching.

  False(No): 问题中的信息点或观点与文中的信息点或作者的观点出现矛盾、冲突或排斥。

  例: You can go to Shanghai by train or by plane. Q: You mustfly to Shanghai.

  Not Given: 问题中的信息点或观点在原文中未提及,可能正确也可能不正确,界定范围模糊。

  例:It rained heavily in most areas in North China. Q: It rainedin Shanghai. 或It rained in Beijing.

  F和NG的根本区别在于F肯定与原文发生冲突和排斥,而NG则没有。例:You can go to Shanghai bytrain or by plane. Q: You must fly to Shanghai.文中说去上海可有两种方式供选择,而问题则认为仅有一种。问题中的信息点或观点与文中的信息点或作者的观点出现矛盾、冲突。又例:Youcan go to Shanghai by plane. Q: You must fly to Shanghai.文中说可以乘飞机去上海,但并没有说这是不是唯一的选择,可能是也可能不是。而问题则认为仅有一种。问题中的信息点或观点与文中的信息点或作者的观点没有出现矛盾和冲突。

  解题方法:根据判断题的命题规律和考察角度,我们可以运用简单推理和语言技能分析考察点来作出判断。可从以下几个主要方面考虑:

  1.界定题中考察点和原文对应部分的范围或概念以及相互关系

  如果范围或概念一致,并有从属、相容的关系,一般为True。如果范围或概念不一致,并出现冲突则为F。如果范围或概念界定模糊,或范围或概念不一致,但又没有直接冲突则选NG。对NG题原文中没有直接对应句,但可能有干扰句,一般可将干扰句看作参考对应句。

  例: You can go to Shanghai by train or by plane.

  Q: You fly to Shanghai.(T)   Q: You must fly to Shanghai.(F)

  Q: You may probably go to Shanghai by bus. (NG)

  又例:Educational standards in schools have, in general, beengradually improving.

  Q: Schools have been getting better. (T)

  Q: The education in schools has not been improving. (F)

  Q: Educational standards are not as unsatisfactory as theyused to be. (NG)

  Tuition fees in this university usually rise by 3-5 percentannually.

  Q: The university raises the tuition fee by 3-5 percent everyyear. (T)

  Q: The tuition fees in the university rose by 4 percent lastyear. (NG)

  More than half of the college’s 6000 students are over 19years old.

  Q: There are now 6000 students over the age of 19 in thecollege. (F)

  Cooking can only be done in the kitchen in the dormitory.

  Q: Cooking can not be done anywhere in the dormitory. (F)

  Q: Cooking cannot be done everywhere in the dormitory. (T)

  可以看出分清是整体还是局部的关系,是绝对还是相对的概念至关重要。因此一些表示范围、程度和数量的词如:always, all,some, little, only, must, usually, never等经常是题目中的考察点。

2.对题中考察点和原文对应部分的范围或概念根据上下文进行简单的推理,特别是当涉及到对立的概念时这种推理显得尤为重要。

  例:在关于交通法规的一篇文章中写到Trucks are not allowed to run on this road.问题是: Cars are prohibited on this road.答案应为:F。但不少考生会误选NG,问题在于考生没有做进一步的简单推理,没能看出文中说的卡车禁行是针对其它机动车辆不禁行而言。当文中或题目涉及到对立的概念时,如:多与少、生与死、战争与和平等,尽管作者可能仅提到其中的一个方面,但其另一个方面则是不言而喻的。如果不是对立或对应的两者,而是多种可能, 应为NG。这种推理是考生做出正确判断的重要方法。这样的考题有时颇有一定难度,考生容易误作NG来理解。又例:

  In times of peace, the Olympic Games have taken place atfour-yearly intervals since its inception in 1896.

  Q: The Games have taken place every four years since it wasrevived in 1896. (F)

  Those who pay regular prices for the trip should share a twinroom.

  Q: A few people paying regular prices for the trip can stay insingle rooms. (F)

  3. 运用语言知识分析问题和原文对应部分是否不同

  对比分析问题和原文对应部分的时态、语气、语态,句型和用词是解题的重要的一环。这一点经常被很多考生所忽略,使得解题时犹如雾里看花,难以做出正确的判断。例:

  1. The ancient Egyptians moved clay hives, probably on rafts,down the Nile.

  Q: The Egyptians keep bees on the banks of the Nile. (NG)(时态不同)

  2. John and Mary’s wedding took place yesterday. However, Johndidn’t marry her because she was rich.

  Q: In fact, because Mary was rich, John didn’t marry her. (F)(句子结构不同)

  3. The torch of modern Olympics symbolizes the continuation ofthe ancient Greek athletic ideals.

  Q: The modern Olympics are inspired by the same ideals as theancient ones. (NG) (词义)

  4.Too many circles and patterns are formed each year in toomany countries for them to have been hoaxes.

  Q: All crop circles are hoaxes. (N) (too … to… 句型)

  5. If a space probe today sent back evidence thatextraterrestrial intelligence existed in the universe, it wouldcause much more sensation than we can imagine. (T)(虚拟语气)

  Q: The author believes that it now may be impossible thatthere is intelligence outside the earth.

  G类和A类的不同:G类重点考察信息点的细节对应;A类侧重于观点的对应。但有时不论G类或A类会二者兼考。考观点对应时考生要注意作者的观点可能与文中出现的观点不尽相同。目前国内的雅思书对此很少提及。
例:练习

  21. Women have less job security and fewer opportunities forpromotion than men. Higher status jobs, even in industries whichemploy mostly women, also tend to be filled by men.

  Q: Men are invariably preferred to women when it comes topromotion.    (F)

  22. Women have little opportunities to contribute their goodideas or suggestions around and outside the immediate confines oftheir particular job. This is because they are not sufficientlywoven into the fabric of the organization to permit theirinsinuation into discussions at the right moment.

  Q: Since women are rarely fully integrated into anorganization, they are unable to contribute useful ideas. (F)

  综上所述,我们在做判断题时一找二看三判断。找文中对应句,题中考察点(观点和信息点)的对应范围,看语法结构,如时态,语态是否不同,是否需要进一步推理等,最后再做判断。

  仅供参考的几个小窍门:根据判断题的命题规律及对目前流行的雅思判断题进行分析,不难发现这样的一些规律或倾向。

  1.如果文中对叙述的事情没有进行比较,而题中的描述出现了比较或变化,一般选NG。

  例:Campuses in Britain are safe places to live, as in generalare most British towns. Like anywhere else in the world, there areareas in some cities best avoided after dark.

  Q: It is safer to live in UK than in other countries.(NG)

  2. 如果题中的考察点出现了绝对概念如never,all或数量词或词组,FALSE的出现率较高。如果题中的考察点出现了相对概念如some,或表示某种可能性的词,TRUE的出现率较高。

  例:More than half of the college’s 6000 students are over 19years old.

  Q: There are now 6000 students over the age of 19 in thecollege. (F)

  又例: Not all of the young people like pop music. Q: Someyoungsters enjoy listening to pop music.. (T)

  3. 如果题中的考察点与文章的部分内容发生冲突,部分文章未提及,应选FALSE。

  例:He likes to go to the US and Europe. Q: He doesn’t like togo to America, but New Zealand. (F)

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