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英联雅思托福国际英语教育

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叶毅斌:最新雅思写作剖析,预测和备考指导  

2009-05-27 15:19:56|  分类: 精华雅思写作/英 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 许多烤鸭认为只要熟背模板(老师或参考书上所给的好的范文和句子)、死记单词就可以拿高分,还有的同学认为只要写出长句、难句、结构复杂甚至连自己都看不懂的句子就可以打动雅思考官,这些都是对雅思作文要求的片面理解。实际上,写作是有规律可循的,只有遵循一定的原则和标准,才能获得好的成绩。本文就雅思作文的评分标准作一个深度分析,供大家参考。
  官方公布的评分标准,具体如下:

Task 1

Task 2

Task Achievement

Task Response

Coherence and Cohesion

Coherence and Cohesion

Lexical Resource

Lexical Resource

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

  根据以上表格我们不难看出,Task 1和Task 2的评分标准只有第一条(任务完成情况)不同,由于Task1考查的是图表作文,所以要比Task2要少一项任务,就是不需要有作者的立场(Position)。除此之外,两个任务都需要有具体的内容和合理的结构、良好的连贯性和衔接性、丰富的词汇资源以及语法的多样性和准确性。那么,这一评分标准中体现了怎样的内涵,我们又如何才能达到这样的标准呢?下面我想结合Task2的具体实例来谈一谈。
  一、任务完成情况
  任务完成情况主要包括三个方面:内容(content)是否切题,立场(position)是否鲜明并得到有效阐释,结构(structure)是否有逻辑性。
  内容如何做到切题,关键在于审题时要找准题目的主题(topic)以及针对该主题所提出的问题(topicquestions)。一般来说,主题就是题目中反复出现或主句中充当主语的或宾语的名词以及名词短语,而问句则通常就是我们要讨论的要点,如果要点理解有误或漏掉某个要点,则都属于没有切题。譬如:
With the increasing use of mobile phones, less people tend to writeletters. Some people believe that writing letters will disappearcompletely. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  从这个题目当中我们不难看出writing letters出现的频率较高,且都在主句中出现,说明它就是我们要找的主题,如果你过多描述mobilephones给我们带来的好处就跑题了。另外,题目的写作任务也很清楚:Do you agree that writing letterswill disappear completely?属于“支持或反对”类的题,必须明确表达你的立场,不能既同意又不同意,同时表达你同意或不同意的理由。
  立场要做到鲜明并得到有效阐释需要有如下几个内容:topic sentence(主题句),mainideas(论点),supportingpoints(论据)。主题句通常放在文章的首段,开门见山地表明你的立场,主题句只能有一个;论点放在中间段的首句,让读者一目了然,论点应该有两个以上,否则论证就不充分;论据包括evidence(证据)、examples(例子)等,放在论点后面,每个论点都应该有论据作支撑,否则就会显得论据不足。
  合理的文章结构通常由三大部分组成,即引言(introduction)、主体(body)和结论(conclusion),写4-5段比较合理。引言要涵盖主题、写作任务和主题句,主体则要包括足够的论点和论据,结论可以重申观点、提出建议或展望未来。
  二、连贯与衔接
  文章的连贯性主要体现在段落与段落之间,句子与句子之间。
  段落之间的“启”、“承”、“转”、“合”可通过表顺序的过渡词完成,譬如:
  表示开始:first of all, in the first place, at the very beginning, tobegin with, currently, at present, for one thing等。
  表示承接:besides, further more, in addition, moreover, what’s more,meanwhile, apart from,
as well as, similarly, in the same way等。
  表示转折:however, whereas, while, on the contrary, in contrast, onthe other hand等。
  表示结论:in conclusion, in brief, in short, to sum up, ultimately,overall等。
  句子之间的逻辑关系也要通过一些逻辑连词来完成,譬如:
  表示原因:because (of ), accordingly, due to, owing to, for thisreason, since, as a result, as a consequence等。
  表达观点:in my opinion, personally, from my viewpoint, it seems tome, it is clear to me that, as far as I am concerned
  举例说明:for example, for instance, as follows, such as, that is tosay, namely, just as, in particular等。
  表示让步:although, in spite of, despite of, despite the fact that,regardless of等。 

三、词汇资源
  词汇的多少并不能决定文章的好坏,但用词的精准性是可以加分的。一般来说,词汇的准确表达可以通过两个方面达到,一是在用词的难度上拔高,二是在近义词的多种表达上提升。譬如要描述一个好人,很多同学首先想到的形容词就是good,kind, wise, nice, clever, great,bright等词,而这些词往往很难出彩,因为描述太过于抽象,如果能用到诸如ambitious, tactful, eloquent,charismatic,committed之类的词就很具体了。当然,??功夫就可以运用自如的,还有,值得提醒的是不要认为这些词好就过分堆积,会给考官留下华而不实的感觉,正如优秀的厨师往往都不会用太多的佐料,而只需油盐就可以了。
四、语法的多样性和准确性
  句子的好坏主要取决于句子结构的准确性和丰富性,句子的长度和复杂性以及用语的逻辑性和正式性。
  句子结构的准确性涉及主谓一致、句子平衡性等问题,比如:The main reason for this use ofinformal languages are various and complicated.这个句子不细心的同学很难发现它有问题,因为主语太长有时会忽视真正的主语其实是the main reason,是个单数形式,所以are应该改为is. 再比如:In my opinion, use mobile phones to send messages ismore convenient than write letters.这是个很典型的错误,很多同学在写作的过程当中会误把动词或动词短语当主语用而造成句子结构的错误,而只有动词的非谓语形式才能在句中充当主语或宾语,因此,此句正确的表达应该是:Inmy opinion, using mobile phones to send messages is more convenientthan writing letters.
  句子结构的丰富性也是考官给分的一个亮点,好的段落应该由不同的句式组成,而不应该是千篇一律的句子结构。例如:I have manyhobbies. For example, I like movies, I like playing basketball andfootball, and I like singing and dancing. 很明显,该句完全由“I +do”结构组成且like 使用的频率过高,我们不妨做如下修改:I have many hobbies. Movies, forexample, are my favorite and I am also fond of playing basketballand football. Sometimes when staying with my friends, I’d prefersinging and dancing rather than any other way of amusement.
  句子的长度和难度是很多考生追求的目标,其实并不需要每个句子都写得很长很复杂,相反,如果整篇文章都是长难句,考官也会觉得很厌烦,就像一个人喜欢吃红烧肉,如果你天天给他吃红烧肉,他也会觉得很腻味一样,因此最好的方法就是长短句结合。
  下面介绍一种把短句变长的方法,即善用连接词and, but, or, yet, so等。例如:Living off campusis exciting. Living off campus is more independent. I prefer theconvenience of living on campus.不难看出,这是两种对立的观点,因此我们可以将其变为:Livingoff campus is exciting and more independent, but I prefer theconvenience of living on campus.
  除了句子的长度和丰富性外,还有一点是不容忽视的,即用语的正式性和严谨性。实际上,在汉语中也有很多这样的例子,比如我们说:“这里人真多啊!”这就是一个典型的口语化的表达方式,而如果用“人山人海”、“车水马龙”、“摩肩接踵”等词来形容人多就是写作语言了。我们不妨看几个非正式用语的句子:Parentshave to get kids food and other stuff.此句中的kids和stuff就是两个非正式用语,如变成:Parents have to provide children withfood and other necessities.就正式了。再如:People always say competitivesports are totally cool.此句中的cool以及这个句式都是属于比较口语化的,应该变为:It is alwayssaid that competitive sports benefit us in several importantways.
  “冰冻三尺,非一日之寒”,要想在雅思考试中折桂,还需付出艰辛的努力,但只要找准了努力的方向,按照雅思考试的评分标准去准备,我想一切的付出都会有回报的。值得一提的是,关于写作模板大概有两派观点,一种人认为模板无用,还有一种人则认为离了模板无法动笔,而我则认为,写作模板就如同厨师的配方,所有的美味佳肴都出自这些方子,但如果某天这个秘方被人偷了去,厨师照样能炒出可口的饭菜,而那位偷了秘方的人也未必能得偿所愿,因为他可能掌握不了火候。所以,只有把模板当作一种参考,潜心研究,多一点积累,才能成就自己的语言,才会烹饪出雅思写作的饕餮大餐!

5.30,6.11/13,6-8月大作文具体题目预测调整:按重点先后排列

(VIP资料有搜集相关范文)

1.Is it nature or nurture that plays a major role in the development of personality? What's your opinion? 

2.Some people say that people should have differentamount of holiday according to their job. To what extent do youagree or disagree to this opinion?

3.Nowadays there are various methods torelieve the pressure in modern life. Some read or exercise, otherswork in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways ofreducing stress?

4.The gap of living in cities and the countrysideis larger and larger. What are the reasons in your country and howto reduce the differences?

5.Universitiesshould accept equal numbers of male and female studying in every subject. Do you agree or disagree. 

6.People have different expectation for jobs. Some people prefer to do the same job for the same company,and some people rather than change the job frequently. Dothe advantages outweigh thedisadvantage? 

7.The private motor vehicle has greatly improved individual freedom of movement. Moreover, the automobile has become a status symbol. Yet the use of private motor vehicles has contributed to some of today's most serious problems. How can the use of private motor vehicles be reduced? 

8. International tourism now isthe biggest industry in the world. Unfortunately, it createstension rather than understanding between the peoples fromdifferent cultures. To what extent do you agree or disagree withthe above opinion? Is It Necessary to Develop Tourism?(Manydeveloping countries are currently expanding their touristindustries. Why is the case? Is it a positive development?)

9. As for elderly, living in caring house is betterthan living at home with young children. Present your argument toillustrate whether you agree or disagree.

10.Young adults should undertake unpaid work tohelp people in the community. Do you think it brings more drawbacksto the community and the young adults than benefits?/Some peoplebelieve that some unpaid community service should be a compulsorypart of high school programmes (e.g. working in a charity,improving the relationship of neighborhood or teaching sports tochildren) To what extent do you agree or disagree?

11. In order to learn a language well, we shouldalso learn about the country as well as the cultures and lifestylesof the people who speak it. To what extent do you agree ordisagree?

12. Wild animals have no place in 21st century.Some people think that prevent these wild animals from dieing outis a waste of resource. To what extent do you agree or disagreewith this./ Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but pooralternative to a natural environment. Is it necessary to keepanimals in zoos?

13. Some people live in one community in theirentire lives, others move at least once; some quite often. Compareand contrast moving to different parts of the country versus livingin one community in your entire life. Write about 250 words.

14.The only way to reduce the amount of traffic incities today is by reducing the need for people to travel from homefor work, education or shopping. To what extent do you agree ordisagree?

15.Young adults should undertake unpaid work tohelp people in the community. Do you think it brings more drawbacksto the community and the young adults than benefits?/Some peoplebelieve that some unpaid community service should be a compulsorypart of high school programmes (e.g. working in a charity,improving the relationship of neighborhood or teaching sports tochildren) To what extent do you agree or disagree?

16. Should criminals be sent to a jail or let themdo something else as punishment instead of sending into a jail? Whyand give your reasons.

17.Over the past 50 years, young people gain statusand power but old people have lost. What is the cause and is it agood development or bad development?

18.Some people said the government shouldn't put money on building theaters and sports stadiums; they should spend more money on medical care and education. Agree or not disagree?
19. Should criminals be sent to a jail or let them do somethingelse as punishment instead of sending into a jail? Why and giveyour reasons.

20.Some people believe that history is little ornothing to people. Others think that people must study history tounderstand the present. Discuss both views and give youropinion.

21. some people suggest when people move to a newcountry they should accept the new culture as their own. to whatextent do you agree or disagree?

22.Successful sports professionals can earn a greatdeal more money than people in other important professions. Somepeople think this is fully justified while others think it isunfair. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

5.30,6-8月G类大作文具体题目预测调整:(VIP资料有搜集相关范文)

1.Some people say that people should have differentamount of holiday according to their job. To what extent do youagree or disagree to this opinion?

2.Nowadays there are various methods torelieve the pressure in modern life. Some read or exercise, otherswork in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways ofreducing stress?

3.Some people say that older people should livewith their adult children. Others say that they shouldn't. Which doyou think is good practice.

4. Some people live in one community in theirentire lives, others move at least once. some quite often. Compareand contrast moving to different parts of the country versus.
5. In the past people thought that education was only for youngpeople. Now it is believed that education is for a person's wholelife. Do you agree? State with you own experience and specificdetails.

6.The gap of living in cities and the countrysideis larger and larger. What are the reasons in your country and howto reduce the differences?

7.People nowadays work hard to buy more things.This has made our lives generally more comfortable but manytraditional values and customs have been lost and this is a pity.To what extent do you agree or disagree?

8. 8.Universities should accept equal numbers ofmale and female studying in every subject, Do you agree ordisagree.

9. Advantages and disadvantages of Shopping on TheNet.

11. Young people are important resources to theircountry, but governments may ignore some problems faced by youngpeople in running the country. Please show those problems and giveyour ideal suggestions to solve them.
12. Families are not as close as before. Give reasons for thischange, and suggest some ways to bring families closer.
13.衣服/服装的利弊Does fashion(服装,衣服) contribute anything to society?

14. Many developing countries are currentlyexpanding their tourist industries. Why is the case? Is it apositive development?

15. Individual greed and selfishness has been thebasis of the modern society. Someone think that we must return tothe olds, more traditional values of respect for the family and thelocal community in order to create a better world to live in. Towhat extent do you agree or disagree?

16.When designing a building, the most importantfactor is inside use of the building rather than its outsideappearance. Do you agree or disagree?)

17.Is it nature or nurture that plays a major role in the development of personality? What's your opinion? 


5.30,6-8月G类小作文(书信)具体题目预测调整:(VIP资料有相关范文)1.You havebought a washing machine. First you found that the machine damagedyour clothes, and you had it changed. Then you found that the newone seriously entangled the clothes. Write to the manager of thedepartment store to complain about it.2 You should write at least150 words.

2.You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.You went shopping one day and you had received very bad service ina shop. You want to complain to the boss. ( Write a letter tocomplain about the bad service. You should write at least 150words.
3.You are writing your first letter to a pen pal. Introduceyourself and tell her that you will be visiting her country duringthe summer vacation and suggest meeting her.
4.You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. You have had anaccident and are in hospital. Write a letter to your collegeadministration explaining why you will be absent from class for thenext month. Ask for advice about how to continue your studiesduring this period.
You should write at least 150 words. You do NOT need to write yourown address.
5. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Assume that you wish to study in England.
Write a letter of inquiry based on your interests. Ask what kind ofclubs there are at the university, and what is the procedure forjoining them. You should write at least 150 words.
You do NOT need to write your own address.
6. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. One of your penpals will shortly be visiting your city. For some reasons, you cannot manage to meet him at the airport on time.
Write a letter asking him to wait for you at the airport and tellhim how to identify you. You should write at least 150 words. Youdo NOT need to write your own address.
7. You are arranging a dinner party. Write a letter to your friendto invite him or her to the party. Say why you are holding it andgive the necessary details.
8. A friend of yours is going to your home city for a conference.He will spend a few days there. He has written you a letter, askingfor advice about things to see and to do while he is there. Write aletter to him and give him some advice.
9. You have seen a job advertised in your local newspaper. Write aletter of application. Introduce yourself and give details of yourexperience and say why you'd like the job.
10. Someone you know well is applying to a university abroad. Writea recommendation letter for him, say how you got to know him andwhy he is worth your recommendation.
11. Your friend is getting married and he has invited you to hiswedding. However, you can't make it for a certain reason. Now writea letter to explain why.

12. You are going to an overseas university tostudy. Write a letter to the university asking about accommodationand airport pickup.

A类小作文熟悉各种预测重点图形写法(VIP会员资料有具体预测题目和范文),G类熟悉各种书信写法(VIP资料有具体预测题目和范文,命中率95-100%)

 

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